Table of Contents
About Water Quality Trading
- Advances in Water Quality Trading as a Flexible Compliance Tool. (2015). Prepared as a Flexible Compliance Tool Task Force of the Water Environment Federation. WEF Publication.
- Background Information on water quality trading and wetland mitigation banking by the Environmental Law Institute.
- The Design and Comparative Economic Performance of Alternative Second-Best Point/Nonpoint Trading Markets. (2001). Department of Agricultural Economics: Michigan State University. Staff Paper #2001-16.
- Effluent Trading Links: Page maintained by Rich Woodward, Texas A&M.
- EPA Water Quality Trading Evaluation: Final Report. (Oct 2008).
- Future Market-based Environmental Policies: "The next generation of market-based environmental policies." (1996). Robert Stavins, Bradley Whitehead. Resources for the Future Discussion Paper 97-10.
- Mid-Atlantic Water Quality Trading: A Primer on Water Quality Trading in the Mid-Atlantic Region. (2006). Mid-Atlantic Regional Water Program.
- Non-Point Credit Bank Model: National Association of Conservation Districts.
- Nutrient Trading: A Water Quality Solution?. (Nov 2005). Presentation Paper. Dr Suzie Greenhalgh and Mindy Selman. World Resources Institute - OECD Workshop on Agriculture and Water: Sustainability, Markets and Policies.
- Nutrient Trading Resource Directory: (Jan. 2005) - Jake Vandevort, CSREES Mid-Atlantic Regional Water Quality Program.
- Point-Nonpoint Source Pollution Trading Using Collective Performance Incentives. (May 2001). Michael A. Taylor, Alan Randall, and Brent Sohngen. Selected Paper Presentation: Annual Meeting of the American Agricultural Economics Association. August 5-8: Chicago, IL.
- Report On Strategies and Trading: "Market Based Strategies and Nutrient Trading: What you need to know." (1995). Kurt Stephenson, Waldon Kerns, and Leonard Shabman. Virginia Tech.
- Tradable Permits Bibliography: Webpage maintained by Tom Tietenberg, Colby College.
- U.S. Effluent Trading and Offset Projects: Summary. (1999). Environomics for US EPA Office of Water.
- Water Markets in the West: Prices, Trading, and Contractual Forms. (2007). Brewer, Jedidiah, Robert Glennon, Alan Ker, Gary D. Libecap. NBER Working Paper No.13002.
- Water Pollution: Pollutant Trading Could Reduce Compliance Costs if Uncertainties are Resolved. (June 1992). United States General Accounting Office. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Public Works and Transportation, House of Representatives.
- Water-Quality Trading: A Guide for Wastewater Community. Jones C., Bacon L., Kieser M., Sheridan D. 2005. WEF Publication.
- Water Quality Trading Guide: "Getting Paid for Stewardship: An Agricultural Community Water Quality Trading Guide." (2006). Conservation Technology Information Center.
- Water Quality Trading and Offset Initiatives in the U.S.: A Comprehensive Survey. (2004). Hanna L Breetz, et al. Research Supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Rockefeller Center at Dartmouth College.
- Water Quality Trading in the United States: Working paper. (June 2005). US EPA, National Center for Environmental Economics. Overview of trading programs in the US.
- Water Quality Trading Internal Management Directive:. (2009). Oregon Department of Environmental Quality.
USDA Water Quality Trading Webpage - includes links to major trading documents and websites.
- Additional publications found under the "WRI & WERF Publications" section of this page.
Technical Research & Publications
- Addressing Total Phosphorus Impairments with Water Quality Trading. (2006). Christopher Obropta and Gregory Rusciano. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 42(5): 129-1306.
- Are Markets the Solution to Water Pollution? A Sociological Investigation of Water Quality Trading. (2009). M. Mariola. Dissertation: Ohio State University. Abstract.
- Attenuation Coefficients for Water Quality Trading. (2014). Arturo A. Keller, et al. Environmental Science and Technology: 48 (12), pp 6788–6794. Abstract.
- Contract-based Trading Programs in Environmental Regulations. (2004). A.G. Keeler Contemporary Economic Policy 22: 526-533.
- Cross Cutting Analysis of Trading Programs: Case Studies in Air, Water, and Wetland Mitigation Trading Systems; Learning from Innovations in Environmental Protection, Research Paper Number 6. Robert L. Kerr, Steven J. Anderson, John Jaksch Kerr; Greiner, Anderson & April, and Battelle Pacific Northwest Division. (June 2000). WorldCat Listing.
- Crunch Time for Water Quality Trading. (2005). Dennis King in Choices (publication of the American Agricultural Economics Association).
- Data and Modeling for Environmental Credit Trading: A Conservation Effects Assessment Bibliography. (August 2004). Compiled by: Ted J. Sherman, Stuart R. Gagnon, and Joseph R. Makuch. Water Quality Information Center: National Agricultural Library.
- Development of Implementation Methods of Water Quality Trading Policy: Using Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF). (2010) Y.S. Shin. Dissertation: University of Missouri.
- Do baseline requirements hinder trades in water quality trading programs? (July 2009). M. Ribaudo, G. Ghosh, and J. Shortle.
- Economic and Environmental Benefits of Water Quality Trading: An Overview of US Trading Programs. (2004). Kieser, Mark S., and "Andrew" Feng Fang. Environmental Trading Network and Kieser & Associates.
- Effluent trading to improve water quality: what do we know now?. (2005). Sandra Rousseau, Center for Economic Studies, Leuven, Belgium.
- Establishing a Research Agenda for Assessing the Bioavailability of Wastewater Treatment Plant-Derived Effluent Organic Nitrogen in Treatment Systems and Receiving Waters. (2007). Margaret R. Mulholland, Nancy G. Love, Deborah A. Bronk, Vikram Pattarkine, Amit Pramanik, H. David Stensel. Workshop co-sponsored by the Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) to the Chesapeake Bay Program and the Water Environment Research Foundation's (WERF's) Nutrient Challenge Program.
- Examining the Effects of Ecological and Political Boundaries on the Potential for Water Quality Trading: Lessons from a Southeastern Trading Framework. (2009). Keiser, David A., Mullen, Jeffrey D., Bergstrom, John C., Smith, Nathan B., Radcliffe, David E., Risse, Mark L., and Fowler, Laurie A. Agricultural and Applied Economics Association: Annual Meeting. July 26-28, 2009: Milwaukee, WI.
- Experimental Tests of Water Quality Trading Markets. (2014). Jones, Luke R. & Vossler, Christian A. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, 68(3), pages 449-462. Abstract.
- The Five Keys to Constructing Successful Water Quality Trading Schemes. (2009). T. Stanton. Ecosystem Marketplace.
- Harnessing Markets for Water Quality. (November 2002). Water Resources Impacts.
- Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation. (2008). J.H. Rodgers, Jr. and J.W. Castle.
- Linking the Theory and Actuality of Water Quality Trading Opportunities: Management Areas and Fixed Costs. (2010). Tianli Zhao, Yukako Sado, Richard N. Boisvert, and Gregory L. Poe. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management, Cornell University.
- Market Structures for U.S. Water Quality Trading. (2011). Richard T. Woodward and Ronald A. Kaiser. Review of Agricultural Economics 24(2): 366-383.
- Missing Protection - Polluting the Mississippi River Basin's Small Streams and Wetlands. (2008). J. Devine.
- Moving Pollution Trading from Air to Water: Potential, Problems, and Prognosis. (2013). Karen Fisher-Vanden, Sheila Olmstead. Journal of Economic Perspectives 27(1): 147-72.
- Natural Resources Credit Trading Reference. (August 2011). United States Department of Agriculture: Natural Resources Conservation Service.
- Optimizing the Scale of Markets for Water Quality Trading. (2014). M.W. Doyle, L.A. Patterson, Y. Chen, K.E. Schnier, and A.J. Yates. Water Resources Research 50.
- Permit Trading and Credit Trading: A Comparative Static Analysis with Perfect and Imperfect Competition. (2004). J.T. Boom. The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University: Food and Resource Economic Institute.
- Potential Markets for Watershed Services. (2008 presentation). J. Jensen. Western Forestry Leadership Coalition. Prepared by/Adapted from A.H. Todd, NA Watershed Program Leader.
- Preliminary Review for a Geographic and Monitoring Program Project: A review of point source-nonpoint source effluent trading /offset systems in watersheds. (2003). Alexander Wood and Richard Bernknopf. USGS Open file report 03-79.
- Proactive Flood and Drought Management: A Selection of Applied Strategies and Lessons Learned from around the United States. (August 2013). American Water Resources Association Policy Committee.
- Proactive Flood and Drought Management, Vol. II. (April 2016).
- Program on Technology Innovation: Water Quality Trading for Nitrogen: The Foundation for a Pilot Project. (December 2006). R. Carlton (EPRI Project Manager). Electric Power Research Institute.
- Removing Muck with Markets: A case study on pollutant trading for cleaner water. (2003). Policy brief to Reason Foundation.
- Role of Tradable Permits in Water Pollution Control. (2003). Joseph Kraemer. Ecologic, Institute for International and European Environmental Policy.
- Sustainable Water Systems: Step One - Redefining the Nation's Infrastructure Challenge. (2009). A Report of the Aspen Institute's Dialogue on Sustainable Water Infrastructure in the U.S., The Apen Institute, Washington, D.C.
- Thin and Lumpy: An Expiremental Investigation of Water Quality Trading. (May 2011). Jordan F. Suter, John Spraggon, and Gregory L. Poe. Selected Paper Prepared for Presentation at the Agricultural & Applied Economics Associations 2011 AAEA & NAREA Joint Public Meeting. July 24-26: Pittsburgh, PA.
- Trading on Water. (2001). S. Greeenhalgh and P. Faeth - Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy.
- Trading Poultry Litter at the Watershed Level: A Goal Focusing Application. (1998). K. Jones and G. D'Souza.
- Trading Programs Seen as Most Effective When Limited to Specific Watersheds. (November 2014). Amena H. Saiyid. From: Environmental Reporter. Article Available from Bloomberg BNA News.
- Trading Research of Richard T. Woodward (homepage), Department of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University:
- "Lessons about Effluent Trading From a Single Trade" (2003).
- "The Structure and Practice of Water-Quality Trading Markets" (2002).
- "Market Structures for U.S. Water Quality Trading" (2002).
- Water Quality Trading with Asymmetric Information, Uncertainty and Transaction Costs: A Stochastic Agent-Based Simulation. (January 2013). N.P. Nguyen, J.S. Shortle, P.M. Reed, T.T. Nguyen. Resource and Energy Economics 35(1): 60-90.
- Watershed-based Pollution Trading development and current trading programs. (2001). Mc Ginnis, SL. Environmental Engineering and Policy 2 (3): 161-170.
- Watershed Nutrient Trading under Asymmetric Information. (Oct 2002). Robert Johansson, Agricultural and Resource Economics Review.
- When should Uncertain Nonpoint Emissions be Penalized in a Trading Program? (2008). D.A. Hennessy and H. Feng.
- Will Nutrient Trading Ever Work? An Assessment of Supply and Demand Problems and Institutional Obstacles. (2003). D. King and P. Kuch. Environmental Law Reporter.
Best Management Practices (BMPs)
- BMP List for the Lower Boise River Pollution Trading Program. (2002).
- Conservation Practice Standard: Nutrient Management (Ac.). (January 2012). Natural Resources Conservation Service. Code 590.
- Cost and Cost Efficiencies for Some Nutrient Reduction Practices in Maryland. (28 April 2009). Robert Wieland, Doug Parker, Will Gans, and Andrew Martin. For: NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office and MD Department of Natural Resources.
- Cost-effectiveness of Agricultural BMPs for Nutrient Reduction in the Tar-Pamlico River Basin. (July 1995). North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service.
- Cost-Effectiveness Study of Urban Stormwater BMPs in the James River Basin. (2013). The Center for Watershed Protection. Prepared for: James River Association.
- Proposed BMPs to be Applied in the Lower Boise River Effluent Trading Demonstration. (2002). David L. Carter.
State-by-state case studies are found on the State Programs page.
- Does Regulating Farmers Work? Lessons from Three Chesapeake Bay State Nutrient Management Laws. (April 2012). Michelle Perez (World Resources Institute). Webinar for the State Level Nutrient Reduction Strategies - Agriculture Component Workshop. Webinar Presentation.
- Effluent Trading for Water Quality Management: Concept and Application to the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. (2003). E. Nishizawa, Marine Pollution Bulletin 47: 169-174.
- Evaluation Framework for Water Quality Trading Programs in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. (2009). Chesapeake Bay Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee.
- Evaluation of Virginia's Nutrient Credit Trading Program. (2006). Kurt Stephenson, Stephen Aultman, Leonard Shabman. Presented at the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting (July 23-26, 2006).
- Legal Decision: “Food & Water Watch and Friends of the Earth v. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Bob Perciasepe, Acting Administrator. Memorandum Opinion: Granting Defendants’ Motions to Dismiss.” (2013). District Court for the District of Columbia. Case 1:12-cv-01639-RC.
- Nutrient Trading, the Flush Tax, and Maryland's Nitrogen Emissions to the Chesapeake Bay. (2007). A working paper by J.C. Hanson and K. McConnell.
- Simulated Trading for Maryland's Nitrogen Loadings in the Chesapeake Bay. (2008). J.C. Hanson and K.McConnell. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review 37/2: 211-226.
- Trading Away Toward a Cleaner Bay. (April 2014). Brainard, Jeffrey. Chesapeake Quarterly.
- Transaction Costs of Nonpoint Source Water Quality Credits: Implications for Trading Programs in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. (October 2014). Rees, Gwendolen, and Dr. Kurt Stephenson. Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Virginia Tech.
Gulf of Mexico
- Awakening the "Dead Zone": An Investment for Agriculture, Water Quality, and Climate Change. (2003). Suzie Greenhalgh and Amanda Sauer, WRI (includes presentations on P, N, and CO2 trading, and full text document).
- Gulf Hypoxia Action Plan 2008 for Reducing, Mitigating and Controlling Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and Improving Water Quality in the Mississippi River Basin. (2008). Mississippi River Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force. Task Force Website.
- Reassessment 2013: Assessing Progress Made Since 2008. (2013). Mississippi River Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force.
- Gulf of Mexico Regional Ecosystem Restoration Strategy (Preliminary). (October 2011). Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Task Force.
- Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: An Update by the EPA Science Advisory Board. (December 2007). EPA Science Advisory Board. United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA).
- Nitrogen sources and gulf hypoxia: potential for environmental credit trading. (2005). Marc Ribaudo, Ralph Heimlich, and Mark Peters. Ecological Economics 52: 159-168.
- Nutrient Delivery from the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico and Effects of Cropland Conservation. (2014). Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 69(1):26-40.
- Nutrients and Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico: An Update on Progress. (2008). C.S. Snyder. Better Crops 92(2).
Lake Erie Basin
- Michigan's Implementation Plan: Western Lake Erie Basin Collaborative. (January 2016). MI Department of Environmental Quality: Water Resources Division.
- Moving Forward: Legal Solutions to Lake Erie's Harmful Algal Blooms. (April 2015). Report Commissioned by: Lucas County, Ohio Board of County Commissioners.
- Recommended Phosphorus Loading Targets For Lake Erie. (May 2015). Annex 4 Objectives and Targets Task Team Final Report to the Nutrients Annex Subcommittee
- Western Lake Erie Basin Water Resources Protection Plan: Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan. (August 2005). US Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources Conservation Service.
- Case Studies in Integrated Water Resources Management: From Local Stewardship to National Vision. (November 2012). American Water Resources Association. Edited by: Brenda Bateman and Racquel Rancier.
- Case Studies of Water Quality Trading Being Used for Compliance with Nutrient NPDES Permit Limits. (December 2013). Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).
- Collaborating for Healthy Watersheds: How the Municipal & Agricultural Sectors are Partnering to Improve Water Quality. (2015). AGree, National Association of Clean Water Agencies, & the U.S. Water Alliance. Collaborative White Paper.
- Community-Based Water Quality Trading: the Potential for Columbus, OH. Presented by Richard Moore, Ohio State University.
- Developing and Assessing Policy Options for Reducing Phosphorus Loading in Lake Champlain. USDA-ARS. (Dec 2004).
- Effluent Trading: A policy review for Texas. (1999). Center for Public Leadership Studies.
- Evaluating Economic Policy Instruments for Sustainable Water Management in Europe: WP3 Ex-Post Case Study of Great Miami River Watershed Water Quality Credit Trading Program. (January 2012). Mark S. Kieser and Jaimie L. McCarthy. Prepared for the EPI Water Project under contract from the European Commission. Deliverable no.: D3.1.
- An Evaluation of Virginia's Nutrient Credit Trading Program.(2006). K. Stephenson, S. Aultman, and L. Shabman.
- Lessons Learned from the Trading Pilots: Applications for Wisconsin Water Quality Trading Policy. (2003). Resource Strategies, Inc. for Fox-Wolf Watershed Alliance.
- Missing Protection: Polluting the Mississippi River Basin's Small Streams and Wetlands. (November 2008). Jon Devine, Mark Dorfman, Kirsten Sinclair Rosselot. Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC).
- Point/nonpoint nutrient trading in the Susquehanna River Basin. (2002). Richard Horan, James Shortle, David Abler. Water Resources Research 38 (5): 1050.
- Sharing the Load: Effluent Trading for Indirect Dischargers. (1998). US EPA, New Jersey DEP.
- Trading Pollution for Water Quality: Assessing the effects of market-based instruments in three basins. (2007). K.H. Wallace. Master's Thesis.
- Wabash River Watershed Water Quality Trading Feasibility Study: Final Report. (September 2011). Conservation Technology Innovation Center, Tetra Tech, Inc., and Kieser & Associates, LLC. Prepared for: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Targeted Watershed Grant WS-00E71501-0.
- Water Quality Trading in the Lower Delaware River Basin: A Resource for Practitioners." (March 2006). Report to the William Penn Foundation by the Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Pennsylvania.
- Water Quality Trading in the United States. (June 2005). Cynthia Morgan and Ann Wolverton. National Center for Environmental Economics.
- Water quality trading programs: A comparison between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. (2008). S. Greenhalgh and M. Selman. AARES 52nd Annual Conference. Canberra, Australia.
Outside of the United States
- Bringing Biophysical Models into the Economic Laboratory: An Exerimental Analysis of Sediment Trading in Australia. (2006). J. Tisdell. Contributed paper prepared for presentation at the International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference. August 12-18, 2006: Gold Coast, Australia.
- Economic Instruments for Managing Water in New Zealand. (Jan 2004). Final Report for NZ Ministry for the Environment. (PDF).
- Evolving Environmental Policies and Asset Values: Nutrient Trading Schemes in the Netherlands. (1998). Tomislav Vukina, Ada Wossink. World Congress of Environmental and Resource Economists.
- Market-Based Tools for Environmental Management. (Oct 2004). Proceedings of the 6th Annual AARES National Symposium, 2003. Australian Government Initiative.
- Phosphorus Loading Algorithms for the South Nation River. (January 2003). Chris Allaway. South Nation Conservation: Clean Water Committee.
- Socio-Political Conditions for Successful Water Quality Trading in the South Nation River Watershed. Presentation. (June 2011). Dennis O'Grady. Workshop on Evaluation of Agri-Environmental Policies: Braunschweig, Germany.
- South Nation Conservation Authority: What has 57 years of Watershed Management and Multi-Million Dollar Watershed Plans taught us?" Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan www.asabe.org, Paper number 042175, 2004 ASAE Annual Meeting. Abstract.
- Tradable discharge permits system for water pollution in the upper Nanpan River, China. (2003). Wendong Tao, Weimin Yang, and Bo Zhou.
- Water and Agriculture: Sustainability, Markets, and Policies. (2006). Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD/OCDE).
Credit Quantification / Ratios
- 2002 Cost for Connecticut Nitrogen Trades.
- Differences in Social and Public Risk Perceptions and Conflicting Impacts on Point/Nonpoint Trading Ratios. (2001). Richard Horan. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 83 (4).
- The Environmentally Optimal Trading Ratio. (2001). by R.T. Woodward.
- Examining Point-Nonpoint Trading Ratios for Acid Mine Drainage Remediation with a Spatial-Temporal Optimization Model. (2005). by X. Zhao and J.J. Fletcher.
- Linking Trading Ratio with TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load) Allocation Matric and Uncertainty Analysis. (2008). H.X. Zhang.
- Point/non-point source source trading of pollution abatement: choosing the right trading ratio. Arun S. Malik, David Letson, Stephen R. Crutchfield. (1993). American Journal of Agricultural Economics. Vol. 75 (4): 959-967.
- Rainfall Simulation Study on the Effectiveness of Continuous No-till in Virginia. (2001).
- South Nation Watershed Phosphorus Algorithm Report Phase II. (Jan 2003).
- A Survey of Trading Ratios Used for Generation of Credits in Water Quality Trading Programs. (July 2012). Environmental Law and Conservation Clinic: University of Virginia Law School
- When two wrongs make a right: second-best point/nonpoint trading ratios. (2005). Richard Horan, American Journal of Agricultural Economics 87 (2):340.
- An optimal control approach to water quality trading: cost-effective point/nonpoint management in a watershed framework. (2004). Xiaobing Zhao, Jerald Fletcher. Presented at the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting (Aug 1-4, 2004).
- Analysis of Phosphorus Control Costs and Effectiveness for Point and Nonpoint Sources in the Fox-Wolf Basin. Resource Strategies, Inc. (July 1999). (PDF).
- Design and Comparative Economic Performance of Alternative Second-Best Point/Nonpoint Trading Markets. (2001). by R.D. Horan, J.S. Shortle, D.G. Abler, and M. Ribaudo.
- Economics and Environmental Markets: Lessons from Water Quality Trading. (2013). Shortle, James. Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review: 42(1), pp.57-74.
- Economic and Environmental Implications of Phosphorus Control at North Bosque River (Texas) Wastewater Treatment Plants. (July 2003). Keith Keplinger et al. Texas Institute for Applied Environmental Research.
- Fertile Ground: Nutrient Trading's potential to cost-effectively improve water quality. (2000) - Paul Faeth, World Resources Institute. (PDF).
- "Open Markets" v. "Structured Bilateral Trades": Results of Economic Modeling of Point-to-Point Source Water Quality Trading in the Non-Tidal Passaic River Basin. (2009). T. Zhao, Y. Sado, R.N. Boisvert, and G.L. Poe. Department of Applied Economics and Management, Cornell University.
- Paying for Environmental Performance: Using reverse auctions to allocate funding for conservation. WRI Policy Note no 3. (Jan. 2007).
- Preliminary Economic Analysis of Water Quality Trading Opportunities in the Great Miami River Watershed (Ohio). Prepared by Kieser & Associates for the Miami Conservancy District. _To obtain the Technical Memorandum for this report, contact _Mark Kieser via email _or telephone at_ 269-344-7117.
- Research in Environmental Economics - NCEE Working Paper Series:
- "EPA's National Center for Environmental Economics (NCEE) publishes a working paper series on research in environmental economics. Paper topics include environmental management, resources and conservation, agriculture, global issues, institutional issues, and other topics. These papers are either authored by NCEE economists or produced with funding from NCEE.”
- Setting Permit Prices in a Transferable Discharge Permit (TDP) System for Water Quality Management. (2005). D. Collentine for the 99th Seminar of the European Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Transaction Costs and Tradable Permits. Stavins, R.N. (1995). Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 29: 133-148.
- Transactions Costs and Point-Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Trading. (2006). N. Nguyen and J. Shortle.
- Transaction costs and trading behavior in an immature water market. (2002). Janis Carey, David Sunding, and David Zilberman. Environment and Development Economics 7:733-750.
- Can Water Quality Trading help to address agricultural sources of pollution in Canada? Policy Research Initiative Final Report. (May 2006). Bernard Cantin.
- A Collective Performance-based Contract for Point-Nonpoint Source Pollution Trading. (2003). M.A. Taylor, A. Randall, and B. Sohngen.
- Comments on U.S. Agricultural and Food Policy: 1995 and Beyond. (September 1994). J.P. Houck. Fourth Minnesota/Padova Conference on Food, Agriculture, and the Environment. September 4-10, 1994: Wayzata, Minnesota.
- The Coordination and Design of Point/Nonpoint trading programs and agri-environmental policies. (2004). Richard Horan, James Shortle and David Abler. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review 33 (1): 61-78.
- Development of a Multiobjective Optimization Tool for the Selection and Placement of Best Management Practices for Nonpoint Source Pollution Control. (2009). Chetan Maringanti, Indrajeet Chaubey, and Jennie Popp. Water Resources Research. Vol 45.
- Evaluation of Nutrient Trading Options in Virginia: A Role for Agriculture? (2009) by K. Stephenson, S. Aultman, T. Metcalfe, and A. Miller.
- Examining Point-Nonpoint Trading Ratios for Acid Mine Drainage Remediation with a Spatial-Temporal Optimization Model. (2005). by X. Zhao and J.J. Fletcher.
- The Future of Agriculture and Water: Market and Policy based strategies for sustainability. What can the developing world learn from North America? (2005). Conference paper by S. Msangi, C. Ringler, and M. Rosegrant. International Food Policy Research Institute. OECD workshop on Agriculture and Water.
- Incentive-based solutions to agricultural environmental problems: recent developments in theory and practice. (2000). Allen Randall and Michael Taylor, Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 32 (2):221-234.
- Including Non-point Sources in a Water Quality Trading Permit Program. (2005). D. Collentine, Water Science and Technology 51 (3-4): 47-53.
- Management of unregulated agricultural nonpoint sources through water quality trading market. (2016). Emad Mahjoobi, Amin Sarang, Mojtaba Ardestani. Water Science and Technology. 74(9). pages 2162-2176. Abstract.
- Nitrogen Farming: Harvesting a Different Crop. (2002). Donald L. Hey. Restoration Ecology. 10(1).
- The Nitrogen Legacy: Emerging Evidence of Nitrogen Accumulation in Anthropogenic Landscapes. (2016). Van Meter, KJ, NB Basu, JJ Veenstra, and CL Burras. Environ. Res. Lett. 11 (2016) 035014. IOP Publishing.
- Nitrogen Sources and Gulf Hypoxia: Potential for Point-Nonpoint Trading. (1998). M.O. Ribaudo, R. Heimlich, and M. Peters.
- Nonpoint Source and Carbon Sequestration Credit Trading: What can the Two Learn from Each Other? (2003). Kurt Stephenson, Darrell Bosch. Presented at the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting (July 27-30, 2003).
- Nutrient Farming: The Business of Environmental Management. (2005). Donald L. Hey, Laura S. Urban, Jill A. Kostel. Ecological Engineering 24: 279-287.
- Offset Banking: A way ahead for controlling nonpoint source pollution in urban areas in Georgia. (2002). Mark Morrisson, Georgia State University, Water Policy.
- Phosphorus Trade Credits for Non-Point Source Projects. (2005). Presentation by Earles T., Lorenz A., and Koger W. Proceedings from the World Water Congress.
- Point-nonpoint Effluent Trading in Watersheds: a Review and Critique. Michelle Jarvie and Barry Solomon (1998). Environmental Impact Assessment Review 18 (2):135-157.
- Point-Nonpoint Source Pollution Trading Using Collective Performance Incentives. (2001). M.A. Taylor, A. Randall, and B. Sohngen.
- Pollutant Monitoring of Effluent Credit Trading Programs for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Control. (November, 2000). Master's Thesis, Daniel Jackson March, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
- A Pollution Offset System for Trading Non-Point Source Water Pollution Permits. (September 2009). By R.A. Ranga Prabondanie, J.F. Raffensperger, and M.W. Milke.
- Reducing Regulatory Uncertainty in Pollutant Trading. (1995). S.J. Taff and N. Senjem. Paper 2 in the 4th Minnesota Padova Conference on Food, Agriculture, and the Environment. Proceedings of a conference sponsored by University of Minnesota Center for International Food and Agricultural Policy.
- Role of Conservation Adoption Premiums on Participation in Water Quality Trading Programs. (2016). Marzieh Motallebi, Caela O’Connell , Dana L. Hoag , and Deanna L. Osmond. Water. 8(6).
- Search for the northwest passage: the assignation of NSP (non-point source pollution) rights in nutrient trading programs. (2002). by D. Collentine, Water Science and Technology 45 (9):227-234.
- Setting Agricultural Baselines in Water Quality Trading Programs. (August 2013). American Farmland Trust Center for Agriculture and the Environment.
- Simulation-Optimization Approach for Trading Point and Non-point Source Nutrient Permits. (July 2009). R.A. Ranga Prabondanie, J.F. Raffensperger and M.W. Milke
- Transaction Costs of Nonpoint Source Water Quality Credits: Implications for Trading Programs in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. (October 2014). Gwendolen Rees and Dr. Kurt Stephenson. Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Virginia Tech.
- Trust and Communication: Mechanisms for Increasing Farmers' Participation in Water Quality Trading. (2004). Hanna L. Breetza, Karen Fisher-Vandena, Hannah Jacobs, and Claire Schary. - Water Quality and Agriculture. (2007). Choices 22 (2) - includes the article: "Water Quality Credit Trading and Agriculture: Recognizing the Challenges and Policy Issues Ahead" (p.117)
- Water Quality and Agriculture: Meeting the Policy Challenge - Key Messages and Executive Summary. (2012). Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD).
- Water Quality Trading in Agriculture. (2012). James Shortle. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD).
- What Water Quality Trading Programs Need to Know Before Setting Agricultural Baselines. (August 2013). American Farmland Trust. Center for Agriculture and the Environment. (PDF).
- When Should Uncertain Nonpoint Emissions be Penalized in a Trading Program? (February 2008). David Hennessy and Hongli Feng. American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 90(1): 249-255.
Stormwater & Green Infrastructure
- Accelerating Cost-Effective Green Stormwater Infrastructure: Learning from Local Implementation. (February 2015). Nylen, Nell Green, and Michael Kirparsky. Wheeler Institute for Water Law and Policy.
- Application of Market Mechanisms and Incentives to Reduce Stormwater Runoff: An Integrated Hydrologic, Economic, and Legal Approach. (2005). Punam Parikh, Michael A. Taylor, Theresa Hoagland, Hale Thurston, William Shuster. Environmental Science & Policy.
- Assessment of Life Cycle Costs for Low Impact Development Stormwater Management Practices: [Final Report]. (2013). Tim Van Seters, Christy Graham, Lisa Rocha (Toronto and Region Conservation) and Mariko Uda, Chris Kennedy (University of Toronto, Department of Civil Engineering).
- Banking on Green: A Look at How Green Infrastructure can Save Municipalities Money and Provide Economic Benefits Community-Wide. (April 2012). American Rivers, the Water Environment Federation, the American Society of Landscape Architects, and ECONorthwest.
- A Business Model Framework for Market-Based Private Financing of Green Infrastructure. (December 2014). ECT Environmental Consulting and Technology, Inc. Funded by the Great Lakes Protection Fund.
- Community Based Public-Private Partnerships (CBP3s) and Alternative Market-Based Tools for Integrated Green Stormwater Infrastructure: A Guide for Local Governments. (2015). Prepared by: US EPA Region 3 Water Protection Division.
- Cost Effectiveness Study of Urban Stormwater BMPs in the James River Basin. (March 2013). Prepared By: The Center for Watershed Protection, for: James River Association.
- Creating Clean Water Cash Flows: Developing Private Markets for Green Stormwater Infrastructure in Philadelphia. (February 2013). Natural Resources Defense Council, EKO Asset Management Partners, and The Nature Conservancy. IB:13-02-A.
- Financing Stormwater Retrofits in Philadelphia and Beyond. (February 2012). Alisa Valderrama and Larry Levine. Natural Resources Defense Council.
- Flood Loss Avoidance Benefits of Green Infrastructure for Stormwater Management. (December 2015). Prepared by: Atkins for: US EPA Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds.
- How to: Stormwater Credit Trading Programs. (2016). NRDC Issue Brief. iB: 16-01-a.
- Implementation of the EPA's Water Quality Trading Policy for Storm Water Management and Smart Growth. (2005). Kathleen M. Trauth and Yee-Sook Shin. Journal of Urban Planning and Development 131(4): 258-269.
- The Importance of Operation and Maintenance for Long-Term Success of Green Infrastructure: A Review of Green Infrastructure O&M Practices in ARRA Clean Water State Revolving Fund Projects. (2015). US EPA.
- Integrated Municipal Stormwater and Wastewater Planning Approach Framework. (May 2012). United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Memorandum.
- Issue Brief - Creating Clean Water Cash Flows: Developing Private Markets for Green Stormwater Infrastructure in Philadelphia. (February 2013). Alisa Valderrama, Lawrence Levine, Eron Bloomgarden, Ricardo Bayon, Kelly Wachowicz, Charlotte Kaiser. NRDC, EKO Asset Management Partners, The Nature Conservancy. Funded by a grant from: Rockefeller Foundation.
- New Solutions for Sustainable Stormwater Management in Canada. (September 2016). O'Neill, Sara Jane, and Stephanie Cairns. Sustainable Prosperity.
- Nutrient Trading by Municipal Stormwater Programs in Maryland and Virginia: Three Case Studies. (March 2017). Cy Jones, Beth McGee, Lee Epstein, Erik Fisher and Peggy Sanner. WRI.
- Pollutant Trading to Improve Riparian Habitat.(Jan/Feb 2006). Stormwater.
- Shepard Creek, Cincinnati, OH - EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory:
- Stormwater Manager's Resource Center: "Designed specifically for stormwater practitioners, local government officials and others that need technical assistance on stormwater management issues. Created and maintained by the Center for Watershed Protection, the SMRC has everything you need to know about stormwater in a single site."
- Stormwater Non-Potable Beneficial Uses and Effects on Urban Infrastructure. (2011). Robert Pitt, Leila Talebi, Ryan Bean, and Shirley Clark. WERF. INFR3SG09.
- Stormwater Offset and Banking Demand Survey. (2015). The Center for Watershed Protection. Memo to: National Fish and Wildlife Foundation.
- Stormwater to Street Trees: Engineering Urban Forests for Stormwater Management. (September 2013). US Environmental Protection Agency: Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds. EPA 841-B-13-001.
- Revised Temperature Management Plan: Rock Creek and Durham wastewater treatment facilities, OR. (2005). Clean Water Services. (PDF).
- Urban Stormwater Management in the United States. (2008). Report of the National Research Council. The National Academies Press.
- Urban Subwatershed Restoration Manual Series. (2012-2013). Center for Watershed Protection. (Webpage with Downloadable Manuals).
Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)
- The Current Controversy regarding TMDLs: Contemporary perspectives "TMDLS and Pollutant Trading". (2003). Ann Powers, Vermont Journal of Environmental Law volume 4.
- The Economics of Total Maximum Daily Loads. Keplinger, Keith. 2003. Natural Resources Journal 43(4).
- A Framework for Pollutant Trading During the TMDL Allocation Phase. (2004). A. Zaidi et al. American Society of Agricultural Engineers Conference Paper.
- Applying Lessons Learned from Wetlands Mitigation Banking to Water Quality Trading. (Feb 2005). White Paper prepared for: Office of Policy, Economics, and Innovation, and Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. By: Mark Landry, Antje Siems, and Gerald Stedge, Abt Associates Inc. and Leonard Shabman, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
- National Forum on Synergies Between Water Quality Trading and Wetland Mitigation Banking. (Jan 2006). Environmental Law Institute.
- Water Quality Trading: What can we learn from 10 years of wetland mitigation banking? (2005). Eric Raffini and Morgan Robertson, National Wetlands Newsletter 27 (4).
- Wetlands and Water Quality Trading: Review of Current Science and Economic Practices with Selected Case Studies. US EPA (EPA/600/R-06/155 - July 2007).
Issues and Discussions
- Bilateral Negotiations versus a Clearinghouse Market for Water Quality Trading: A Stochastic Agent-Based Modeling Approach. (2011). Nga P. Nguyen, James S. Shortle, Trung T. Nguyen, and Patrick M. Reed. Draft for Presentation at the Meeting of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists. June 2011: Seattle, WA.
- The Coordination and Design of Point-Nonpoint Trading Programs and Agri-Environmental Policies. (April 2004). Richard D. Horan, James S. Shortle, and David G. Abler. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, 33/1.
- The Definition and Choice of Environmental Commodities for Nonmarket Valuation. (2009). James Boyd and Alan Krupnick. Resources for the Future.
- Empirical Approaches for Nutrient Criteria Derivation. (August 2009). United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology. Science Advisory Board Review Draft.
- Comments on US EPA "Empirical Approaches for Nutrient Criteria Derivation." (September 2009). G. Fred Lee and Anne Jones-Lee. G. Fred Lee & Associates.
- Environmental Co-benefits and Stacking in Environmental Markets. (2015). Lankoski, J. et al. OECD Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Papers, No. 72, OECD Publishing, Paris.
- Great Lakes Commission: Point-Counterpoint on US EPA's Trading Policy
- GLTN Comments to the EPA on Proposed Changes to the NPDES Program:
- High Frequency Dynamics of Ocean pH: A Multi-Ecosystem Comparison. (December 2011). Gretchen E. Hofmann, Jennifer E. Smith, Kenneth S. Johnson, et. al.
- A Hydrologic / Water Quality Model Application Protocol. (October 2007). Bernard Engel, Dan Storm, Mike White, Jeff Arnold, and Mazdak Arabi. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 43(5).
- Including non-point sources in a water quality trading permit program. (2005). D. Collentine. Water Science and Technology 51 (3-4):47-53.
- Nonpoint Source Pollution Control: Breaking the Regulatory Stalemate. (Environmental Defense)
- Nutrient Trading Advocated to Improve Water Quality. (2002). K. Christen. Environmental Science and Technology 36(3): 53A-54A.
- Pollutant Trading: Key to Better Water Quality. (2002). K. Christen, Environmental Science and Technology 36(13): 270A-272A.
- The Potential for Water Quality Trading in Ohio. Article by Brent Sohngen at OSU Extension and AED Economics, Ohio State University, on policy issues and questions on water quality trading.
- Refining Models for Quantifying the Water Quality Benefits of Improved Animal Management for Use in Water Quality Trading. (March 2014). Lydia Olander, Todd Walter, Peter Vadas, Jim Heffeman, Ermias Kebreab, Mark Ribaudo, Thomas Harter, and Chelsea Morris. Duke University: Nicholas Institute Report.
- Rhetoric and Reality of Water Quality Trading and the Potential for Market-Like Reform. (2010). Kurt Stephenson and Leonard Shabman. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA). 1-14.
- A Simulation of Factors Impeding Water Quality Trading. (2012). Smith, Craig M., Jeffrey M. Peterson, John C. Leatherman, and Jeffery R. Williams. Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy 42 (2).
- Stacking Ecosystem Services Payments: Risks and Solutions. (September 2011). David Cooley and Lydia Olander. Nicholas Institute Working Paper. NI WP 11-04.
- Stacking Opportunities and Risks in Environmental Credit Markets. (2011). Jessica Fox, Royal C. Gardner, and Todd Maki. Environmental Law Institute.
- Uncertainty Assessment in Watershed-Scale Water Quality Modeling and Management:
- Framework and Application of Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) Approach. (2007). Yi Zheng and Arturo A. Keller. Water Resources Research, 43.
- Management Objectives Constrained Analysis of Uncertainty (MOCAU). (2007). Yi Zheng and Arturo A. Keller. Water Resources Research, 43.
- Understanding Parameter Sensitivity and its Management Implications in Watershed-Scale Water Quality Modeling. (2006). Yi Zheng and Arturo A. Keller. Water Resources Research, 42(5).
- Water Quality Trading: A Risky Proposition. (April 2015). Jones, Dr. Luke R., and Dr. Christian A. Vossler. Global Water Forum.
- Water Quality Trading: Polluting Public Waterways for Private Gain. (November 2015). Food and Water Watch.
- Water Quality Trading in the U.S. Featured article by Mark Kieser (ETN) and Andrew Fang (Kieser & Associates); published on-line on The Katoomba Group's Ecosystem Marketplace website.
WRI & WERF Published reports
World Resources Institute (WRI)
- Awakening the "Dead Zone": An Investment for Agriculture, Water Quality, and Climate Change. (2003). Suzie Greenhaulgh and Amanda Sauer. WRI Issue Brief.
- Fertile Ground: Nutrient Trading's potential to cost-effectively improve water quality. (2000). Paul Faeth, World Resources Institute.
- Nutrient Trading by Municipal Stormwater Programs in Maryland and Virginia: Three Case Studies. (March 2017). Cy Jones, Beth McGee, Lee Epstein, Erik Fisher and Peggy Sanner. WRI.
- Paying for Environmental Performance: Estimating the Environmental Outcomes of Agricultural Best Management Practices. WRI Policy Note no.4 (May 2007).
- Paying for Environmental Performance: Using Reverse Auctions to Allocate Funding for Conservation. WRI Policy Note no.3 (Jan 2007).
- Water Quality Programs: an International Overview. WRI Issue Brief no.1. (March 2009).
Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF)
The Full-Text Reports can be Ordered from the WERF Website.
- Phosphorus Credit Trading in the Cherry Creek Basin: An Innovative Approach - Final Report.
- Phosphorus Credit Trading in the Kalamazoo River Basin: Forging Nontraditional Partnerships - Report.
- Phosphorus Credit Trading in the Fox-Wolf Basin: Exploring Legal, Economic, and Technical Issues - Abstract.
- Nitrogen Credit Trading in Maryland: A Market Analysis for Establishing a Statewide Framework - Article Information.