Programs Outside U.S.

Trading Programs Outside of the United States

Comparative International Studies

  • Comparing Water Quality Trading Programs: What Lessons Are There To Learn? (2012). Suzie Greenhalgh and Mindy Selman. JRAP 42(2): 104-125.
  • An Integrated Assessment of Water Markets: Australia, Chile, China, South Africa, and the USA. (July 2010). R. Quentin Grafton, Clay Landry, Gary D. Libecap, Sam McGlennon, and Robert O'Brien. NBER Working Paper No. 16203.
  • Water Quality Programs: An International Overview. (March 2009). Mindy Selman, Suzie Greenhalgh, Evan Branosky, Cy Jones, and Jenny Guiling. WRI Issue Brief no.1.




  • Assessing the Feasibility of Nutrient Trading Between Point and Nonpoint Sources in the Lake Chao Basin: Project Result / Case Study. (28 February 2013).

  • An Eco-Compensation Policy Framework for the People's Republic of China: Challenges and Opportunities. (October 2010). Asian Development Bank.

  • Sloping Lands Conservation Program:

    • "Grain for Green:" Program utilizes an intermediary-based transaction (local government) internal trading payment mechanism where the central government allocates funding for compensation to farmers setting aside part of their cropland.
  • Tradable Discharge Permits System for Water Pollution. (1998).

  • Upper Nanpan River: Case Study.


  • Jesus De Otoro
    • A program focusing on water quality and reducing water pollution using improved management practices and a point system to determine payments.


  • Sukhomajri: Community Watershed Management
    • Focuses on water quality through participatory integrated watershed management projects using best management practices. Their payment mechanism is an NGO intermediary-based transaction and tradable water rights/user fees.


  • Kenya Integrated Ecosystem Project:
    • A Market Design strategy for Water Quality to reduce erosion and pollutants into Lake Victoria and also includes carbon credits from tree planting and biodiversity.


  • Dutch Nutrient Quota System

New Zealand

  • Nutrient Trading in Lake Rotorua: Where Are We Now? Working Paper. (2007).

Regional Programs