Water Quality Trading

Find publication information about these Water Quality Trading areas:


About Trading
Trading Papers & Research
WRI & WERF Publications

 About Trading

Background Information on water quality trading and wetland mitigation banking by the Environmental Law Institute.

Effluent Trading Links: Page maintained by Rich Woodward, Texas A&M

EPA Water Quality Trading Evaluation: Final Report (Oct. 2008)

Water Quality Trading Guide: "Getting Paid for Stewardship: An Agricultural Community Water Quality Trading Guide
" (2006) - published by the Conservation Technology Information Center

Introduction to Water Quality Trading (2004). John Leatherman, Craig Smith, J. Peterson. Kansas State University Report

Report On Strategies and Trading: "Market Based Strategies and Nutrient Trading: What you need to know" (1995) - Kurt Stephenson, Waldon Kerns, and Leonard Shabman. Virginia Tech.

Non-Point Credit Bank Model: National Association of Conservation Districts. Conservation Marketplace Web page, Nonpoint Credit Bank Model (pdf).

Future Market-based Environmental Policies: "The next generation of market-based environmental policies" (1996). Robert Stavins, Bradley Whitehead. Resources for the Future Discussion Paper 97-10.

Paper on Nutrient Trading As Solution: "Nutrient Trading - A Water Quality Solution?" Presentation Paper by Dr Suzie Greenhalgh and Mindy Selman, World Resources Institute - OECD Workshop on Agriculture and Water: Sustainability, Markets and Policies (Nov. 2005)

Nutrient Trading Resource Directory: (Jan. 2005) - Jake Vandevort, CSREES Mid-Atlantic Regional Water Quality Program.

Mid-Atlantic Water Quality Trading: A Primer on Water Quality Trading in the Mid-Atlantic Region (2006) - Mid-Atlantic Regional Water Program - pdf

U.S. Effluent Trading and Offset Projects: Summary  (1999). Environomics for US EPA Office of Water (pdf), page with web links.

Tradable Permits Bibliography: Page maintained by Tom Tietenberg, Colby College

Water Quality Information Center: National Agricultural Library, USDA

Water Quality Trading FAQs: Oregon Department of Environmental Quality

Water Quality Trading in the United States: Working paper (June 2005) - US EPA, National Center for Environmental Economics. Overview of trading programs in the US.

Water Quality Trading Internal Management Directive: (2009)  Oregon Department of Environmental Quality

 Water-Quality Trading: A Guide for Wastewater Community by Jones C., Bacon L., Kieser M., Sheridan D. 2005. 

Additional publications can be found under the "WRI & WERF Publications" section.

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 Trading Research and Papers



Are Markets the Solution to Water Pollution? A Sociological Investigation of Water Quality Trading. (2009). M. Mariola. Dissertation: Ohio State University. Link

Development of Implementation Methods of Water Quality Trading Policy: Using Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) (2010) Y.S. Shin. Dissertation: University of Missouri. Link

The Five Keys to Constructing Successful Water Quality Trading Schemes (2009). T. Stanton. Ecosystem Marketplace. Link

First Worldwide Summary of Water Quality Trading Programs Shows Growing Popularity (2009) Link 

Addressing Total Phosphorus Impairments with Water Quality Trading (2006). Christopher Obropta and Gregory Rusciano. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 42 (5):1297-1306. Link.

Contract-based Trading Programs in Environmental Regulations (2004) A.G. Keeler Contemporary Economic Policy 22: 526-533. Link.

Cross Cutting Analysis of Trading Programs: Case Studies in Air, Water and Wetland Mitigation Trading Systems
; Learning from Innovations in Environmental Protection, Research Paper Number 6; By Robert L. Kerr, Steven J. Anderson, John Jaksch Kerr; Greiner, Anderson & April and Battelle Pacific Northwest Division (June 2000).

Nine Case Studies, Appendices A-I.

"Crunch Time for Water Quality Trading" (2005) - by Dennis King in Choices (publication of the American Agricultural Economics Association).

Do baseline requirements hinder trades in water quality trading programs? (July 2009) by M. Ribaudo, G. Ghosh and J. Shortle.

Effluent trading to improve water quality: what do we know now? (2005) by Sandra Rousseau, Center for Economic Studies, Leuven, Belgium pdf

Engaging Western Landowners in Climate Change Mitigation: A Guide to Carbon-Oriented Forest and Range Management and Carbon Market Opportunities (2009) by D.D. Diaz, S. Charnley, and H. Gosnell. USDA - Forest Service Pub No. PNW-GTR-801.

Establishing a Research Agenda for Assessing the Bioavailability of Wastewater Treatment Plant-Derived Effluent Organic Nitrogen in Treatment Systems and Receiving Waters
(2009) by M.R. Mulholland, N.G. Love, et al. STAC Report Pub. No. 09-002.

Gulf Hypoxia Action Plan 2008 for Reducing, Mitigating and Controlling Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and Improving Water Quality in the Mississippi River Basin (2008) by the Mississippi River Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force.  Task Force Website

Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: An Update by the EPA Science Advisory Board (2007) by US EPA

An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation
 (2008) by J.H. Rodgers, Jr. and J.W. Castle.

Missing Protection - Polluting the Mississippi River Basin's Small Streams and Wetlands (2008) by J. Devine

Permit Trading and Credit Trading - A Comparative Static Analysis with Perfect and Imperfect Competition (2004) by J.T. Boom

Potential Markets for Watershed Services (2008 presentation) by  J. Jensen. Western Forestry Leadership Coalition. Prepared by/Adapted from A.H. Todd, NA Watershed Program Leader

Preliminary Review for a Geographic and Monitoring Program Project
: A review of point source-nonpoint source effluent trading /offset systems in watersheds (2003). Alexander Wood and Richard Bernknopf. USGS Open file report 03-79.

Removing Muck with Markets: A case study on pollutant trading for cleaner water (2003). Policy brief to Reason Foundation.  Link.

The Role of Tradable Permits in Water Pollution Control (2003). Joseph Kraemer. Ecologic, Institute for International and European Environmental Policy.

Sustainable Water Systems: Step One - Redefining the Nation's Infrastructure Challenge (2009).  A Report of the Aspen Institute's Dialogue on Sustainable Water Infrastructure in the U.S., The Apen Institute, Washington, D.C.

Trading on Water (2001) by S. Greenhalgh and P. Faeth - Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy.

Trading Poultry Litter at the Watershed Level: A Goal Focusing Application (1998) by K. Jones and G. D'Souza

Trading Research of Richard T. Woodward (
homepage), Department of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University:

  • "Lessons about Effluent Trading From a Single Trade" (2003).
  • "The Structure and Practice of Water-Quality Trading Markets" (2002).
  • "Market Structures for U.S. Water Quality Trading" (2002).

"Harnessing Markets for Water Quality" Water Resources Impacts (Nov. 2002)

A Water Quality Credit Trading Evaluation Framework for the Mid-Atlantic Region (2009) by C. Abdalla, D. Parker and K. Stephenson

"Watershed-based Pollution Trading development and current trading programs" (2001) by Mc Ginnis, SL. Environmental Engineering and Policy 2 (3): 161-170. Link.

Watershed Nutrient Trading under Asymmetric Information (Oct 2002). Robert Johansson, Agricultural and Resource Economics Review. Link

When Should Uncertain Nonpoint Emissions be Penalized in a Trading Program? (2008) by D.A. Hennessy and H. Feng

Will Nutrient Trading Ever Work
? An assessment of supply and demand problems and institutional obstacles (2003) by D. King and P. Kuch. Environmental Law Reporter.

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 Best Management Practices (BMPs)

BMP List for the Lower Boise River Pollution Trading Program (2002).

Cost-effectiveness of Agricultural BMPs for Nutrient Reduction in the Tar-Pamlico River Basin (July 1995) North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service.

Proposed BMPs to be Applied in the Lower Boise River Effluent Trading Demonstration (2002) by David L. Carter (pdf).

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 Case studies

Chesapeake Bay

Evaluation Framework for Water Quality Trading Programs in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (2009).  Chesapeake Bay Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee.

Evaluation of Virginia's Nutrient Credit Trading Program (2006). Kurt Stephenson, Stephen Aultman, Leonard Shabman. Paper presented at the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting (July 23-26, 2006).

Effluent trading for water quality management: concept and application to the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (2003). E. Nishizawa, Marine Pollution Bulletin 47: 169-174. Link to abstract.

Nutrient Trading, the Flush Tax, and Maryland's Nitrogen Emissions to the Chesapeake Bay (2007). A working paper by J.C. Hanson and K. McConnell

Simulated Trading for Maryland's Nitrogen Loadings in the Chesapeake Bay (2008) by J.C. Hanson and K.McConnell


Building a foundation for water quality trading in Georgia (2006): Kristin Rowles, Ronald G. Cummings, and Laura O. Taylor. Georgia State University - Final report. pdf

Examining the Effects of Ecological and Political Boundaries on the Potential for Water Quality Trading: Lessons from a Southeastern Trading Framework (2009) by D.A. Keiser, J.D. Mullen, J.C. Bergstrom, N.B. Smith, D.E. Radcliffe, M.L. Risse, and L.A. Fowler.

A Feasibility Analysis of Applying Water Quality Trading in Georgia Watersheds (2005) - Kristin Rowles, Georgia State University. pdf

A Framework for Trading Phosphorus Credits in the Lake Allatoona Watershed (2003)- River Basin Center report

An evaluation of water quality trading for Georgia watersheds: Kristin Rowles, Proceedings of the 2005 Georgia Water Resources Conference, held April 25-27, 2005, at The University of Georgia. pdf

Water Quality Trading: Addressing two potential impediments to success (2005). Nanette Nelson and Andrew Keeler, Proceedings of the 2005 Georgia Water Resources Conference, pdf.

Water Quality Trading: Legal Analysis for Georgia Watersheds (2005): Kristin Rowles and Ben Thompson, pdf


Just Add Water - Initiating a Watershed Restoration Dialogue with Upper Kissammee Basin Agricultural Landowners (2009) Ocean Research and Conservation Society.

Gulf of Mexico 

"Awakening the 'Dead Zone': An investment for agriculture, water quality and climate change" - Suzie Greenhalgh and Amanda Sauer, WRI (2003) - link includes presentations on P, N and CO2 trading, and full text document.

Nitrogen sources and gulf hypoxia: potential for environmental credit trading (2005). Marc Ribaudo, Ralph Heimlich, and Mark Peters. Ecological Economics 52: 159-168. Link to article.


A new approach to water quality trading: applying lessons from the acid rain program in the Lower Boise River Watershed. (2004). Claire Schary, Karen Fisher-Vanden. Environmental Practice 6 (4): 281-295.

Effluent Trading Demonstration Project Final Report:
ower Boise River, Idaho.

Water Quality Trading in Idaho: A step-by-step agricultural community guidebook (2004) (pdf)


Watershed Trading Advisory Council - First Meeting Presentation in Ames, Iowa

Long Island Sound

Connecticut Nitrogen Exchange Credit Program (2005). Ann Powers, Pace Law School. View paper.


Point-Nonpoint Source Water Quality Trading: A Case Study in the Minnesota River Basin. Fang, Feng (Andrew), K. William Easter, and Patrick L. Brezonik, 2005. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 41(3):645-658.

Pollutant Trading to Offset New Pollutant Loadings: A Case Study in the Minnesota River Basin, by Dr. "Andrew" Feng Fang, Kieser & Associates.


Community-Based Water Quality Trading: the Potential for Columbus, OH (2008 presentation) by Richard Moore, Ohio State University

Developing and Assessing Policy Options for Reducing Phosphorus Loading in Lake Champlain
- USDA-ARS (Dec 2004).

Effluent Trading: A policy review for Texas (1999) - Center for Public Leadership Studies - Link to report

An Evaluation of the Virginia’s Nutrient Credit Trading Program (2006) by K. Stephenson, S. Aultman, and L. Shabman

Lessons Learned from the Trading Pilots: Applications for Wisconsin Water Quality Trading Policy, Resource Strategies, Inc. for Fox-Wolf Watershed Alliance (2003)

"Point/nonpoint nutrient trading in the Susquehanna River Basin" (2002) - Richard Horan, James Shortle, David Abler. Water Resources Research 38 (5): 1050. Link to abstract.

Sharing the Load: Effluent Trading for Indirect Dischargers (1998). US EPA, New Jersey DEP. Link.

"Trading Pollution for Water Quality: Assessing the effects of market-based instruments in three basins" (2007) by K.H. Wallace. Master's thesis.

"Water Quality Trading in the Lower Delaware River Basin: A Resource for Practitioners": a Report to the William Penn Foundation by the Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Pennsylvania (March 2006).

Water quality trading programs: A comparison between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres (2008) by S. Greenhalgh and M. Selman

Water Quality Trading Suitability Analysis - Spokane River Watershed Final Report (2005) - Ross & Associates -

A water quality trading simulation for Northeast Kansas (2005). J. Peterson, Craig Smith and Luc Valentin. 
Paper presented at the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting (July 24-27, 2005).


Pennsylvania's Nutrient Trading Program: Legal Issues and Challenges (Dec 2007) - A white paper prepared by S. Showalter and S. Spigener.


Bringing Biophysical Models into the Economic Laboratory: An Experimental Analysis of Sediment Trading in Australia (2006) by J. Tisdell

Economic Instrument for Managing Water Quality in New Zealand (Jan. 2004) - Final report for NZ Ministry for the Environment. pdf

Evolving Environmental Policies and Asset Values: Nutrient trading schemes in the Netherlands (1998). Tomislav Vukina, Ada Wossink. World Congress of Environmental and Resource Economists. Abstract.

Market-Based Tools for Environmental Management (Oct 2004) -Proceedings of the 6th annual AARES National Symposium 2003. Australian Government Initiative. pdf

"South Nation Conservation Authority: What has 57 years of Watershed Management and Multi-Million Dollar Watershed Plans taught us?" Published by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan www.asabe.org, Paper number  042175,  2004 ASAE Annual Meeting . Abstract.

Tradable discharge permits system for water pollution in the upper Nanpan River, China (2003). Wendong Tao, Weimin Yang, and Bo Zhou. Research Report.

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 Credit Quantification/Ratios

2002 Cost for Connecticut Nitrogen Trades

"Differences in Social and Public Risk Perceptions and Conflicting Impacts on Point/Nonpoint Trading Ratios" (2001). Richard Horan, American Journal of Agricultural Economics 83 (4) - Link to abstract.

The Environmentally Optimal Trading Ratio (2001) by R.T. Woodward

Examining Point-Nonpoint Trading Ratios for Acid Mine Drainage Remediation with a Spatial-Temporal Optimization Model (2005) by X. Zhao and J.J. Fletcher

Linking Trading Ratio with TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load) Allocation Matric and Uncertainty Analysis
 by H.X. Zhang (2008).

"Point/non-point source source trading of pollution abatement: choosing the right trading ratio" Arun S. Malik, David Letson, Stephen R. Crutchfield (1993). American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 75 (4): 959-967.

Rainfall Simulation Study on the Effectiveness of Continuous No-till in Virginia - 2001

South Nation Watershed Phosphorus Algorithm Report Phase II - Jan 2003

Water Quality II: Using trading ratios to deal with uncertainties. Briefing note. Policy Research Initiative Canada.

"When two wrongs make a right:second-best point/nonpoint trading ratios" (2005). Richard Horan, American Journal of Agricultural Economics 87 (2):340 - Link to abstract

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  Economic Analysis

An optimal control approach to water quality trading: cost-effective point/nonpoint management in a watershed framework (2004). Xiaobing Zhao, Jerald Fletcher. Paper presented at the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting (Aug. 1-4, 2004).

Analysis of Phosphorus Control Costs and Effectiveness for Point and Nonpoint Sources in the Fox-Wolf Basin, Resource Strategis, Inc. (July 1999) pdf

Design and Comparative Economic Performance of Alternative Second-Best Point/Nonpoint Trading Markets (2001) by R.D. Horan, J.S. Shortle, D.G. Abler, and M. Ribaudo

Economic and Environmental Implications of Phosphorus Control at North Bosque River (Texas) Wastewater Treatment Plants
(July 2003) by Keith Keplinger et al. at Texas Institute for Applied Environmental Research.

Fertile Ground: Nutrient Trading's potential to cost-effectively improve water quality (2000) - Paul Faeth, World Resources Institute - Link

"Open Markets" v. "Structured Bilateral Trades": Results of Economic Modeling of Point-to-Point Source Water Quality Trading in the Non-Tidal Passaic River Basin (2009) by T. Zhao, Y. Sado, R.N. Boisvert, and G.L. Poe. Dept of Applied Economics and Management, Cornell Univeristy

Paying for Environmental Performance: Using reverse auctions to allocate funding for conservation - WRI Policy Note no 3 (Jan. 2007) - pdf

Preliminary Economic Analysis of Water Quality Trading Opportunities in the Great Miami River Watershed (Ohio
), Prepared by Kieser & Associates for the Miami Conservancy District (To obtain the Technical Memorandum for this report, please contact Mark Kieser via email or at 269-344-7117).

Setting Permit Prices in a Transferable Discharge Permit (TDP) system for Water Quality Management (2005)- Paper by D. Collentine for 99th Seminar of the European Association of Agricultural Economists.

Transaction costs and tradable permits. Stavins, R.N. (1995). Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 29, 133-148. Link.

Transactions Costs and Point-Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Trading (2006) by N. Nguyen and J. Shortle

Transaction costs and trading behavior in an immature water market (2002). Janis Carey, David Sunding, and David Zilberman. Environment and Development Economics 7:733-750. Link to abstract.

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  Non-point Sources/Agriculture

Can Water Quality Trading help to address agricultural sources of pollution in Canada? Policy Research Initiative Final report (May 2006). Presentation by Bernard Cantin.

A Collective Performance-based Contract for Point-Nonpoint Source Pollution Trading (2003) by M.A. Taylor, A. Randall, and B. Sohngen

The Coordination and Design of Point/Nonpoint trading programs and agri-environmental policies (2004). Richard Horan, James Shortle and David Abler. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review 33 (1): 61-78. (
View Article)

An Evaluation of Nutrient Trading Options in Virginia: A Role for Agriculture? (2009) by K. Stephenson, S. Aultman, T. Metcalfe, and A. Miller

Examining Point-Nonpoint Trading Ratios for Acid Mine Drainage Remediation with a Spatial-Temporal Optimization Model (2005) by X. Zhao and J.J. Fletcher

Reducing Regulatory Uncertainty in Pollutant Trading by S.J. Taff and N. Senjem.  Paper 2 in the Fourth Minnesota Padova Conference on Food, Agriculture and the Enviornment (1995). Proceedings of a conference sponsored by University of Minnesota Center for International Food and Agricultural Policy.  

The Future of Agriculture and Water: Market and Policy based strategies for sustainability. What can the developing world learn from North America? (2005) Conference paper by S. Msangi, C. Ringler, and M. Rosegrant. International Food Policy Research Institute. OECD workshop on Agriculture and Water.

Incentive-based solutions to agricultural environmental problems: recent developments in theory and practice (2000). Allen Randall and Michael Taylor, Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 32 (2):221-234. (View Article.)

"Including non-point sources in a water quality trading permit program" (2005) by D. Collentine, Water Science and Technology 51 (3-4):47-53 (Abstract)

"Nitrogen Farming; Harvesting a different crop" (2002) Donald L. Hey. Restoration Ecology 10 (1) (Link to Abstract)

Nitrogen Sources and Gulf Hypoxia: Potential for Point-Nonpoint Trading (1998) by M.O. Ribaudo, R. Heimlich, and M. Peters

Nonpoint source and carbon sequestration credit trading: what can the two learn from each other (2003). Kurt Stephenson, Darrell Bosch. 
Paper presented at the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting (July 27-30, 2003).

"Nutrient farming: the business of environmental management" (2005) Donald L. Hey, Laura S. Urban, Jill A. Kostel. Ecological Engineering 24: 279–287

"Offset Banking: A way ahead for controlling nonpoint source pollution in urban areas in Georgia". (2002). Mark Morrisson, Georgia State University, Water Policy paper

Phosphorus trade credits for non-point source projects - presentation by Earles T., Lorenz A., and Koger W. Proceedings from the World Water Congress 2005.

Point-nonpoint Eflluent Trading in Watersheds: a Review and Critique. Michelle Jarvie and Barry Solomon (1998). Environmental Impact Assessment Review 18 (2):135-157. Link to abstract.

Point-Nonpoint Source Pollution Trading Using Collective Performance Incentives (2001) by M.A. Taylor, A. Randall, and B. Sohngen

Pollutant Monitoring of Effluent Credit Trading Programs for Agricultural Nonpoint Source Control
, Master's Thesis, Daniel Jackson March, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, November, 2000.

A Pollution Offset System for Trading Non-Point Source Water Pollution Permits by R.A. Ranga Prabondanie, J.F. Raffensperger and M.W. Milke - September 2009

"Search for the northwest passage: the assignation of NSP (non-point source pollution) rights in nutrient trading programs" (2002) by D. Collentine, Water Science and Technology 45 (9):227-234 (Abstract)

Simulation-Optimization Approach for Trading Point and Non-point Source Nutrient Permits by R.A. Ranga Prabondanie, J.F. Raffensperger and M.W. Milke - July 2009

"Trust and Communication: Mechanisms for Increasing Farmers’ Participation in Water Quality Trading" Hanna L. Breetza, Karen Fisher-Vandena, Hannah Jacobs, and Claire Schary (2004) (View Article)

Water Quality and Agriculture (2007) - Choices 22 (2) - includes the article: "Water Quality Credit Trading and Agriculture: Recognizing the Challenges and Policy Issues Ahead", p.117.

Water Quality Trading 1: Scientific considerations for Agricultural Pollutants. Briefing Note, Policy Research Initiative Canada.

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"Application of market mechanisms and incentives to reduce stormwater runoff: An integrated hydrologic, economic and legal approach" (2005). Punam Parikh, Michael A. Taylor 1, Theresa Hoagland, Hale Thurston, William Shuster - Environmental Science & Policy.

Implementation of the EPA's Water Quality Trading Policy for Storm Water Management and Smart Growth (2005). Kathleen M. Trauth and Yee-Sook Shin, Journal of Urban Plng. and Devel., Volume 131 (4): 258-269 - (citation).

Pollutant trading to improve riparian habitat - article in Stormwater (Jan/Feb 2006)

Shepherd Creek, Cincinnati, OH - EPA National Risk Managment Research Laboratory

Thermal Load Credit Trading Plan at Rock Creek and Durham wastewater treatment facilities, OR - Clean Water Services (2003) 

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The Current Controversy regarding TMDLs: Contemporary perspectives "TMDLS and Pollutant Trading" (2003). Ann Powers, Vermont Journal of Environmental Law volume 4. Link to article.

A framework for pollutant trading during the TMDL allocation phase (2004). A. Zaidi et al. American Society of Agricultural Engineers Conference Paper.

The Economics of Total Maximum Daily Loads. Keplinger, Keith. 2003. Natural Resources Journal 43(4). Link.

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"Applying Lessons Learned from Wetlands Mitigation Banking to Water Quality Trading" (Feb. 2005) – White Paper prepared for: Office of Policy, Economics, and Innovation and Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1 by: Mark Landry, Antje Siems, and Gerald Stedge, Abt Associates Inc. and Leonard Shabman, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. pdf.

National Forum on Synergies Between Water Quality Trading and Wetland Mitigation Banking (Jan 2006) - Environmental Law Institute

Water Quality Trading: What can we learn from 10 years of wetland mitigation banking? (2005). Eric Raffini and Morgan Robertson, National Wetlands Newsletter 27 (4) - Link to abstract.

Wetlands and Water Quality Trading: Review of Current Science and Economic Practices with Selected Case Studies - US EPA Report (EPA/600/R-06/155 - July 2007)

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 Issues and Discussions

Great Lakes Commission Point-Counterpoint on USEPA's Trading Policy
See page 9 of publication.

GLTN Comments to the EPA on proposed changes to the NPDES program:

"Including non-point sources in a water quality trading permit program" (2005) by D. Collentine, Water Science and Technology 51 (3-4):47-53 Abstract

Nonpoint Source Pollution Control: Breaking the Regulatory Stalemate (Environmental Defense)

"Nutrient trading advocated to improve water quality" (2002) by K. Christen, Environmental Science and Technology 36(3):53A-54A. link to abstract

"Pollutant trading: key to better water quality" (2002) by K. Christen, Environmental Science and Technology 36(13):270A-272A.

The Potential for Water Quality Trading in Ohio an article by Brent Sohngen at OSU Extension and AED Economics, Ohio State University, on policy issues and questions on water quality trading.

"Search for the northwest passage: the assignation of NSP (non-point source pollution) rights in nutrient trading programs" (2002) by D. Collentine, Water Science and Technology 45 (9):227-234 Abstract.

Water Quality Trading in the U.S., a featured article by Mark Kieser (ETN) and Andrew Fang (Kieser & Associates); published on-line on The Katoomba Group's Ecosystem Marketplace website

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 WRI & WERF Published reports

World Resources Institute

"Awakening the "Dead Zone": An investment for agriculture, water quality and climate change" - Suzie Greenhalgh and Amanda Sauer, WRI Issue Brief (2003)- link includes presentations on P, N and CO2 trading and full text document.

Fertile Ground: Nutrient Trading's potential to cost-effectively improve water quality (2000) - Paul Faeth, World Resources Institute - Link

A Guide to market-based approaches to water quality (2006). World Resources Institute (pdf)

Nutrient Trading: Improving water quality through market-based incentives, World Resources Institute (2004)

Paying for Environmental Performance: Estimating the environmental outcomes of agricultural best management practices - WRI Policy Note no 4 (May 2007) - (pdf)

Paying for Environmental Performance: Using reverse auctions to allocate funding for conservation - WRI Policy Note no 3 (Jan. 2007) -(pdf)

Water Quality Programs: an International Overview - WRI Issue Brief no 1 (March 2009) - pdf

Water Environment Research Foundation

The full-text reports can be ordered from WERF Website.

  • Phosphorus Credit Trading in the Cherry Creek Basin: An Innovative Approach - Executive Summary
  • Phosphorus Credit Trading in the Kalamazoo River Basin: Forging Nontraditional Partnerships. Executive Summary
  • Phosphorus Credit Trading in the Fox-Wolf Basin: Exploring Legal, Economic, and Technical Issues - Executive Summary
  • Nitrogen Credit Trading in Maryland: A Market Analysis for Establishing a Statewide Framework - Executive Summary.
  • Nitrogen Credit Trading in the Long Island Sound Watershed - Executive Summary.
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